Tuning and Analysis Utilities (TAU)

TAU is a portable profiling and tracing toolkit that supports many programming languages. The instrumentation can be done by inserting in the source code using an automatic tool based on the Program Database Toolkit (PDT), on the compiler instrumentation, or manually using the instrumentation API.

Webpage: https://www.cs.uoregon.edu/research/tau/home.php

TAU is installed with Program Database Toolkit (PDT) on Summit. PDT is a framework for analyzing source code written in several programming languages. Moreover, Performance Application Programming Interface (PAPI) is supported. PAPI counters are used to assess the CPU performance. In this section, some approaches for profiling and tracing will be presented.

In most cases, we need to use wrappers to recompile the application:

  • For C: replace the compiler with the TAU wrapper tau_cc.sh
  • For C++: replace the compiler with the TAU wrapper tau_cxx.sh
  • For Fortran: replace the compiler with the TAU wrapper tau_f90.sh / tau_f77.sh

Even if you don’t compile your application with a TAU wrapper, you can profile some basic functionalities with tau_exec, for example:

jsrun -n 4 –r 4 –a 1 –c 1 tau_exec -T mpi ./test

The above command profiles MPI for the binary test, which was not compiled with the TAU wrapper.

Run-Time Environment Variables

The following TAU environment variables may be useful in job submission scripts.

Variable Default Description
TAU_TRACE 0 Setting to 1 turns on tracing
TAU_CALLPATH 0 Setting to 1 turns on callpath profiling
TAU_TRACK_MEMORY_LEAKS 0 Setting to 1 turns on leak detection
TAU_TRACK_HEAP 0 Setting to 1 turns on heap memory routine entry/exit
TAU_CALLPATH_DEPTH 2 Specifies depth of callpath
TAU_TRACK_IO_PARAMS 0 Setting 1 with -optTrackIO
TAU_SAMPLING 1 Generates sample based profiles
TAU_COMM_MATRIX 0 Setting to 1 generates communication matrix
TAU_THROTTLE 1 Setting to 0 turns off throttling, by default removes overhead
TAU_THROTTLE_NUMCALLS 100000 Number of calls before testing throttling
TAU_THROTTLE_PERCALL 10 If a routine is called more than 100000 times and it takes less than 10 usec of inclusive time, throttle it
TAU_COMPENSATE 10 Setting to 1 enables runtime compensation of instrumentation overhead
TAU_PROFILE_FORMAT Profile Setting to “merged” generates a single file, “snapshot” generates a snapshot per thread
TAU_METRICS TIME Setting to a comma separated list (TIME:PAPI_TOT_INS)

Compile-Time Environment Variables

Environment variables to be used during compilation through the environment variable TAU_OPTIONS

Variable Description
-optVerbose Turn on verbose debugging messages
-optCompInst Use compiler based instrumentation
-optNoCompInst Do not revert to compiler instrumentation if source instrumentation fails
-optTrackIO Wrap POSIX I/O call and calculate vol/bw of I/O operations
-optKeepFiles Do not remove .pdb and .inst.* files
-optPreProcess Preprocess Fortran sources before instrumentation
-optTauSelectFile=”<file>” Specify selective instrumentation file for tau_instrumentor
-optTwauWrapFile=”<file>” Specify path to link_options.tau generated by tau_gen_wrapper
-optHeaderInst Enable instrumentation of headers
-optLinking=”” Options passed to the linker
-optCompile=”” Options passed to the compiler
-optPdtF95Opts=”” Add options to the Fortran parser in PDT
-optPdtF95Reset=”” Reset options for Fortran parser in PDT
-optPdtCOpts=”” Options for C parser in PDT
-optPdtCXXOpts=”” Options for C++ parser in PDT

MiniWeather Example Application

Getting the source code

$ git clone https://github.com/mrnorman/miniWeather.git
$ cd miniWeather/c/
$ cp Makefile.summit Makefile

Compile the application

  • We’ll use the PGI compiler; this application supports serial, MPI, MPI+OpenMP, and MPI+OpenACC
$ module load pgi
$ module load parallel-netcdf
  • Different compilations for Serial, MPI, MPI+OpenMP, and MPI+OpenACC:
$ make serial
$ make mpi
$ make openmp
$ make openacc

Below, we’ll look at using TAU to profile each case.

Modifications

  • Edit the makefile and replace mpic++ with tau_cxx.sh. This applies only for the non-GPU versions.
  • TAU works with special TAU makefiles to declare what programming models are expected from the application:
    • The available makefiles are located inside TAU installation:
$ module show tau
---------------------------------------------------------------
   /sw/summit/modulefiles/core/tau/2.28.1:
---------------------------------------------------------------
whatis("TAU 2.28.1 github ")
setenv("TAU_DIR","/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux")
prepend_path("PATH","/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/bin")
help([[https://www.olcf.ornl.gov/software_package/tau
]])

The available Makefiles are named per-compiler and are located in:

$ ls ${TAU_DIR}/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi*
/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-mpi-cupti-pdt-openmp-pgi
/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-mpi-cupti-pdt-pgi
/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-pdt-pgi
/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi_memory_manager-papi-mpi-cupti-pdt-pgi
  • To list all TAU makefiles:
$ ls ${TAU_DIR}/lib/Makefile.tau*

Instrumenting the serial version of MiniWeather

For a serial application, we should not use a Makefile with a programming model such as MPI or OpenMP. However, as the source code for this specific case includes MPI headers that are not excluded during the compilation of the serial version, we should declare a Makefile with MPI. We can declare a TAU makefile with the environment variable TAU_MAKEFILE. Moreover, with TAU_OPTIONS below, we add options to the linker as the application depends on PNetCDF.

$ module load tau
$ export TAU_MAKEFILE=/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-mpi-cupti-pdt-pgi
$ export TAU_OPTIONS='-optLinking=-lpnetcdf -optVerbose'
$ make serial

If there were no MPI headers, you should select the makefile /sw/summit/tau/tau2//ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-pdt-pgi or if you don’t want PDT support, /sw/summit/tau/tau2//ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-pgi Add to your submission script the TAU variables that you want to use (or uncomment them below). By default the TAU will apply profiling, and not apply tracing.

#PAPI metrics
#export TAU_METRICS=TIME:PAPI_TOT_INS:PAPI_TOT_CYC

# Instrument the callpath
export TAU_CALLPATH=1
export TAU_CALLPATH_DEPTH=10

#Activate tracing
#export TAU_TRACE=1

time jsrun -n 1 -r 1 -a 1 -c 1 -g 1  ./miniWeather_serial

When the execution finishes, one directory is created for each TAU_METRICS declaration with the format MULTI__

  • If you do not declare the TAU_METRICS variable, then TIME is used by default, and the profiling files are not in a directory. When the execution ends there will be one file per process called profile.X.Y.Z. In this case there is just one file, called profile.0.0.0

We can export a text file with some information through the pprof tool or visualize it by using paraprof.

If an application has no MPI at all, use the argument --smpiargs="off" for jsrun. Otherwise, TAU will fail as MPI is active by default.

$ pprof profile.0.0.0
Reading Profile files in profile.*

NODE 0;CONTEXT 0;THREAD 0:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
%Time    Exclusive    Inclusive       #Call      #Subrs  Inclusive Name
              msec   total msec                          usec/call
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100.0        0.038     1:10.733           1           1   70733442 .TAU application
100.0            9     1:10.733           1        4654   70733404 int main(int, char **)
 97.1           15     1:08.668        4501       27006      15256 void perform_timestep(double *, double *, double *, double *, double)
 97.1        1,167     1:08.653       27006       54012       2542 void semi_discrete_step(double *, double *, double *, double, int, double *, double *)
 48.4       34,240       34,240       13503           0       2536 void compute_tendencies_z(double *, double *, double *)
 46.9       33,199       33,199       13503           0       2459 void compute_tendencies_x(double *, double *, double *)
  2.5          224        1,752         151       33361      11608 void output(double *, double)
  1.7        1,211        1,211         604         604       2006 MPI_File_write_at_all()
  0.4           36          250           1      100003     250708 void init(int *, char ***)
...


USER EVENTS Profile :NODE 0, CONTEXT 0, THREAD 0
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NumSamples   MaxValue   MinValue  MeanValue  Std. Dev.  Event Name
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      1058    1.6E+05          4  9.134E+04  7.919E+04  MPI-IO Bytes Written
       454        284          4      5.947       13.2  MPI-IO Bytes Written : int main(int, char **) => void output(double *, double) => MPI_File_write_at()
       604    1.6E+05    1.6E+05    1.6E+05          0  MPI-IO Bytes Written : int main(int, char **) => void output(double *, double) => MPI_File_write_at_all()
      1058       9412     0.1818       3311       3816  MPI-IO Write Bandwidth (MB/s)
       454      1.856     0.1818     0.5083     0.1904  MPI-IO Write Bandwidth (MB/s) : int main(int, char **) => void output(double *, double) => MPI_File_write_at()
       604       9412      2.034       5799       3329  MPI-IO Write Bandwidth (MB/s) : int main(int, char **) => void output(double *, double) => MPI_File_write_at_all()
       755          8          8          8          0  Message size for all-reduce
       302  2.621E+05          4  1.302E+05  1.311E+05  Message size for broadcast
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Explanation:
  • One process was running as it is a serial application, even MPI calls are executed from a single thread.
  • The total execution time is 70.733 seconds and only 9 msec are exclusive for the main routine. The rest are caused by subroutines.
  • The exclusive time is the time caused by the mentioned routine, and the inclusive is with the execution time from the subroutines.
  • The #Subrs is the number of the called subroutines.
  • There is also information about the parallel I/O if any exists, the bytes, and the bandwidth.

Next, we will look at using the paraprof tool for the MPI version of MiniWeather.

Instrumenting the MPI version of MiniWeather

For the MPI version, we should use a makefile with MPI. The compilation could fail if the makefile supports MPI+OpenMP, but the code doesn’t include any OpenMP calls. Moreover, with TAU_OPTIONS declared below, we will add options to the linker.

$ module load tau
$ export TAU_MAKEFILE=/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-mpi-cupti-pdt-pgi
$ export TAU_OPTIONS='-optLinking=-lpnetcdf -optVerbose'
$ make mpi

Add to your submission script the TAU variables that you want to use (or uncomment them below). By default, the TAU will apply profiling, and not tracing.

#PAPI metrics
export TAU_METRICS=TIME:PAPI_TOT_INS:PAPI_TOT_CYC

# Instrument the callpath
export TAU_CALLPATH=1
export TAU_CALLPATH_DEPTH=10

#Track MPI messages
export TAU_TRACK_MESSAGE=1
export TAU_COMM_MATRIX=1

#Activate tracing
#export TAU_TRACE=1

jsrun -n 64 -r 8 -a 1 -c 1 ./miniWeather_mpi

Instrumenting the MPI+OpenMP version of MiniWeather

The difference with the MPI instrumentation is the TAU Makefile, the jsrun execution command, and the declaration of the OpenMP threads.

$ module load tau
$ export TAU_MAKEFILE=/sw/summit/tau/tau2/ibm64linux/lib/Makefile.tau-pgi-papi-mpi-cupti-pdt-openmp-pgi
$ export TAU_OPTIONS='-optLinking=-lpnetcdf -optVerbose'
$ make openmp

Add to your submission script the TAU variables that you want to use (or uncomment them below). By default, the TAU will apply profiling, and not tracing.

#PAPI metrics
export TAU_METRICS=TIME:PAPI_TOT_INS:PAPI_TOT_CYC

# Instrument the callpath
export TAU_CALLPATH=1
export TAU_CALLPATH_DEPTH=10

#Track MPI messages
export TAU_TRACK_MESSAGE=1
export TAU_COMM_MATRIX=1

#Activate tracing
#export TAU_TRACE=1

export OMP_NUM_THREADS=4
jsrun -n 16 -r 8 -a 1 -c 4 -b packed:4 ./miniWeather_mpi_openmp

Instrumenting the MPI+OpenACC version of MiniWeather

  • For the current TAU version, you should use the tau_exec and not the TAU wrappers only for the compilation.
  • Use the mpic++ compiler in the Makefile, do not use TAU wrapper.
  • Build the MPI+OpenACC version by running make openacc.
  • Add the following in your submission file:
export TAU_METRICS=TIME
export TAU_PROFILE=1
export TAU_TRACK_MESSAGE=1
export TAU_COMM_MATRIX=1
jsrun -n 6 -r 6 --smpiargs="-gpu" -g 1  tau_exec -T mpi,pgi,pdt -openacc ./miniWeather_mpi_openacc
  • We declare to TAU to profile the MPI with PDT support through the -T parameters, as well as using the pgi tag for the TAU makefile and OpenACC.
  • CUPTI metrics for OpenACC are not yet supported for TAU.

Preparing profiling data

  • When the execution of the instrumented application finishes, there is one directory for each TAU_METRICS declaration with the format MULTI__
    • If you do not declare the TAU_METRICS variable, then by default TIME is used and the profiling files are not in a directory. When the execution ends, there will be one file per process, called profile.X.Y.Z.
  • In order to use paraprof to visualize the data, your ssh connection should support X11 forwarding.
  • Pack the profiling data with a name that you prefer and start the paraprof GUI
$ paraprof --pack name.ppk
$ paraprof name.ppk &

Paraprof

  • The first window that opens when the paraprof name.ppk command is executed shows the experiment and the used metrics, for this case, TIME, PAPI_FP_OPS, PAPI_TOT_INS, PAPI_TOT_CYC.
../../_images/tau_paraprof_manager.png
  • The user is responsible for understanding which PAPI metrics should be used
  • The second window that is automatically loaded shows the TIME metric for each process (they are called “nodes”) where each color is a different call. Each horizontal line is a process or Std.Dev./mean/max/min. The length of each color is related to the metric, if it is TIME, it is duration.
../../_images/tau_mpi_time.png
  • Select Options -> Uncheck Stack Bars Together
    • It is easier to check the load imbalance across the processes
../../_images/tau_mpi_stack_bars.png
  • If you click on any color, then a new window opens with information about the specific routine.
../../_images/tau_mpi_click_color.png
  • If you click on the label (node 0, node 1, max, etc.), you can see the value across each routine in your application.
../../_images/tau_mpi_sort_time.png
  • Right click on the label (node 0, node 1, max, etc.), and then select “Show Context Event Window” (with callpath activated). We can then see various calls from where they were executed, how many times, and other various information.
../../_images/tau_mpi_context_event.png
  • Select Options -> Show Derived Metric Panel, choose the metrics and then the operator that you want, then click Apply. Uncheck the Show Derived Metric.
../../_images/tau_mpi_derived_metric.png
  • Click on the new metric, “PAPI_TOT_INS / PAPI_TOT_CYC” to see the instructions per cycle (IPC) across the various routines.
../../_images/tau_mpi_ipc.png
  • Click on the label mean:
../../_images/tau_mpi_mean_ipc.png
  • For the non-MPI routines/calls, an IPC that is lower than 1.5 means that there is a potential for performance improvement.
  • Menu Windows -> 3D Visualization (3D demands OpenGL) will not work on Summit, and you will need to download the data on your laptop and install TAU locally to use this feature.
  • You can see per MPI rank, per routine, the exclusive time and the floating operations.
../../_images/tau_mpi_3d_fp_ops.png
  • Change the PAPI_FP_OPS to (PAPI_TOT_INS/PAPI_TOT_CYC)
  • You can see per MPI rank, per routine, the exclusive time and the corresponding IPC.
../../_images/tau_mpi_3d_tot_ins.png

Which loops consume most of the time?

  • Create a file called, for example, select.tau with the content:
BEGIN_INSTRUMENT_SECTION
loops routine="#"
END_INSTRUMENT_SECTION

Then declare the options in your submission script:

export TAU_OPTIONS="-optTauSelectFile=select.tau -optLinking=lpnetcdf -optVerbose"
  • The linking option is required for this application, but may not be for all applications.
  • Do not forget to unset TAU_OPTIONS when it’s not necessary.
  • Execute the application as previously shown.
  • Now you can see the duration of all the loops
../../_images/tau_mpi_loops1.png
  • Select Options -> Select Metric… -> Exclusive… -> PAPI_TOT_INS/PAPI_TOT_CYC
../../_images/tau_mpi_loops2.png

The loops with less than 1.5 IPC have poor performance and could likely be improved.

MPI+OpenMP

  • Execute the MPI+OpenMP version
  • Now you can see the duration of parallelfor loops and decide when they should be improved or even removed.
../../_images/tau_openmp.png

GPU

  • When we instrument the MPI with OpenACC, we can see the following through paraprof
  • We can observe the duration of the OpenACC calls
../../_images/tau_openacc.png
  • From the main window right click one label and select “Show User Event Statistics Window”. Then, we can see the data transfered to the devices
../../_images/tau_mpi_openacc_data.png

CUDA Profiling Tools Interface

The CUDA Profiling Tools Interface (CUPTI) is used by profiling and tracing tools that target CUDA applications.

../../_images/cupti.png

Matrix multiplication with MPI+OpenMP:

$ export TAU_METRICS=TIME,achieved_occupancy
$ jsrun -n 2 -r 2 -g 1  tau_exec -T mpi,pdt,papi,cupti,openmp -ompt -cupti  ./add

We choose to use tau_exec with MPI, PDT, PAPI, CUPTI, and OpenMP.

Output directories:

MULTI__TAUGPU_TIME
MULTI__CUDA.Tesla_V100-SXM2-16GB.domain_d.active_warps
MULTI__CUDA.Tesla_V100-SXM2-16GB.domain_d.active_cycles
MULTI__achieved_occupancy

There are many directories because the achieved occupancy is calculated with this formula

Achieved_occupancy = CUDA.Tesla_V100-SXM2-16GB.domain_d.active_warps / CUDA.Tesla_V100-SXM2-16GB.domain_d.active_cycles

You can see in the window with the profiling data after you pack them and execute paraprof, the profiling data are not across all the processes, it depends if a routine (color) is executed across all of them or not based on the type of the rourine CPU/GPU.

../../_images/cupti_main.png ../../_images/cupti_main_window.png
  • Select the metric achieved occupancy
../../_images/cupti_occupancy.png
  • Click on the colored bar
  • The achieved occupancy for this simple benchmark is 6.2%
../../_images/cupti_occupancy_kernel.png

A similar approach for other metrics, not all of them can be used. TAU provides a tool called tau_cupti_avail, where we can see the list of available metrics, then we have to figure out which CUPTI metrics use these ones.

Tracing

Activate tracing and declare the data format to OTF2. OTF2 format is supported only by MPI and OpenSHMEM applications.

$ export TAU_TRACE=1
$ export TAU_TRACE_FORMAT=otf2

Use Vampir for visualization.

Selective Instrumentation

For example, do not instrument routine sort*(int *)

  • Create a file select.tau
BEGIN_EXCLUDE_LIST
void sort_#(int *)
END_EXCLUDE_LIST
  • Declare the TAU_OPTIONS variable
export TAU_OPTIONS=“-optTauSelectFile=select.tau”
  • Now, the routine sort*(int *) is excluded from the instrumentation.

Dynamic Phase

  • Create a file called phase.tau.
BEGIN_INSTRUMENT_SECTION
dynamic phase name=“phase1” file=“miniWeather_mpi.cpp” line=300 to line=327
END_INSTRUMENT_SECTION
  • Declare the TAU_OPTIONS variable.
export TAU_OPTIONS=“-optTauSelectFile=phase.tau”
  • Now when you instrument your application, the phase called phase 1 are the lines 300-327 of the file miniWeather_mpi.cpp. Every call will be instrumented. This could create signiificant overhead, thus you should be careful when you use it.

Static Phase

  • Create a file called phases.tau.
BEGIN_INSTRUMENT_SECTION
static phase name="phase1" file="miniWeather_mpi.cpp" line=300 to line=327
static phase name="phase2" file="miniWeather_mpi.cpp" line=333 to line=346
END_INSTRUMENT_SECTION
  • Declare the TAU_OPTIONS variable.
export TAU_OPTIONS=“-optTauSelectFile=phases.tau”
  • Now, when you use paraprof, you can see different colors for the phase1 and phase2
../../_images/tau_static_phases.png